Impi yaseSandlwana

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Uma sikhuluma ngempi yaseSandlwana kudingeka sazi ukuthi inhlosonqangi yabahlaseli kwakungukuqeda uMbuso woBukhosi bukaZulu owawusasele eNyakatho yoThukela noMzinyathi, ngaphansi kweNgonyama uCetshwayo eyaqala ukubusa kusukela ngowe-1872 kuya kowe-1879.

Ukuhlasela uMbuso wamaNgisi wakwenza ngokusebenzisa amasu kangqondongqondo wezempi eChina, uSun Tzu, oncwadi yakhe yashicilelwa ngowama-400 singakaFiki isiKhathi sikaKrestu [BCE]. Le ncwadi ethi: The Art of War yase ihunyushiwe yashicilelwa e-Europe ngowe-1772 sesiFikile isiKhathi sikaKrestu [ADE]. Kuyo uSun Tzu uthi: “one cannot have advantage of topography without the use of local guides.” okuwukuthi ‘ngeke uyinqobe impi ungazange usebenzise abantu obahlaselayo bendawo abazi nabazokuchushisa kuzo zonke izindawo eziyingozi ngenkathi uhlasela’. Ngakho-ke izinhloli zamaNgisi kwakungezamaZulu ezazi yonke imihosha, amawa, imigede namahlathi endawo. uSun Tzu uphinde athi: “those who reach and occupy the battleground early will have time to rest and wait for the enemy.” okuhumusheka ngokuthi ‘abafika kuqala lapho kuzolwelwa khona baba nethuba lokuphumula belinde isitha ukuze badumelane naso benomfutho’.

Lokhu kwenzeka eNcome, eNdondakusuka nakhona eSandlwana lapho impi kaZulu yafika ntambama mhla zingama-21 kuMasingana 1879, kuzoliwa ngakusasa ekuseni. Uyagcizelela uSun Tzu ukuthi ukuze kunqotshwe isitha umhlaseli kudingeka abe nolwazi olugcwele ngesimo sezempi sesitha asihlaselayo kodwa ululeka ngokuthi: “the fore knowledge cannot be elicited from spirits nor from the gods nor by inductive thinking; nor by deductive calculations. It can only be obtained from men who have knowledge on the enemy’s situation.” ulwazi lwesimo sezempi sesitha lungavela kuphela ngezinhloli zabantu bendawo abasaziyo isimo sendawo yabo.

Le mpi yaseSandlwana kudingeka siphinde sazi ukuthi yayilandela eyaseNdondakusuka yamhla zizi-2 kuZibandlela 1856, eyayihlelwe yiyo iNgilandi ngokuzama ukubeka uMntwana uMbuyazwe ukuba yiNgonyama nxa iSilo uMpande sesikhotheme kubangelwa ngukungamethembi uMntwana uCetshwayo owayefuna izinto zihanjiswe njengesikhathi kusabusa iNgonyama uShaka.

Ngakho-ke iNgilandi yayikwazi konke lokhu ngezinhloli zayo. Yanquma ukuthi kwesekwe uMbuyazwe. Lokhu kuzimbandakanya kweNgilandi ukubhuqa uMbuso kaZulu eNdondakusuka kuyavela nasezibongweni zayo iNgonyama uCetshwayo nxa kuthiwa: “uHlamvana bhul’ umlilo eNdulinde, ubaswe ngabamhlophe abelungui ubaswe nguMantshonga uJ. Walmsely benoGgelebana u-E.F. Rathbone.

Ingonyama uCetshwayo isibusa, njengaye uyise uMpande yabusa kuphela ingxenye yoMbuso kaZulu esuka eningizimu yeMaputo, kwaMabhudu, eseNyakatho yemifula uThukela noMzinyathi kusukela ngonyaka w- 1840 kuya kowe-1879. Ingxenye yoMbuso kaZulu eseningizimu yoThukela eyayize iyovinjwa nguMfula uMzimvubu kusabusa iziNgonyama oShaka noDingane yaqolwa ngamaBhunu ayengaphansi kuka-Andries Pretorius ngokwenza umfelandawonye noMntwana uMpande owaqembuka eNgonyameni uDingane ngonyaka we-1839, ngemuva kancane kwempi yaseNcome yamhla zili-16 kuZibandlela 1838 ngokunxenxwa yibo abelungu, hhayi ukuhlaselwa yimpi kaZulu lokho kuyimbudane, imfundisoze nokungahlaziyisisi umlando wethu.

Ngakho-ke amaBhunu aqhuba impi yoMntwana uMpande phambi kweyawo eMaqonqo ngoMasingana 1840, wona eza ngemuva ehlome ngezibhamu kodwa agcina engazisebenzisanga. Impi yonke nxa idumelana kwaba sengathi amaZulu aqedana wodwa kanti ongqondongqondo bamaBhunu bebevele behlose khona lokho, bagcina beqole yonke ingxenye yoMbuso kaZulu eningizimu yoThukela noMzinyathi bayiqamba kabusha bathi iyiRepublic of Natalia (1840-1843) okuligama elasungulwa ngabelungu ngesu lokucisha ikwaZulu bekhumbula ukudlula ogwini komPhutukezi uVasco da Gama mhla zingama-25 kuZibandlela 1497.

Nempela impi yaseMaqonqo yaliwa ngoNozishada kaMaqhoboza Nzuza woDlambedlu owagqama kakhulu kweyeNgonyama uDingane kuvikelwa uMbuso kaZulu noNongalaza Mnyandu owayehola eyoMntwana uMpande nabahlaseli bamaBhunu eyadla umhlanganiso isekelwe yizibhamu. UMntwana uMpande waklonyeliswa ngengxenye esenyakatho yoThukela ngamaBhunu ka-Andries Pretorius aphinde athi ayamgcoba njengeNgonyama. Ngakho-ke kwagcina iziNgonyama oShaka noDingane ukubusa eMbusweni kaZulu obumbene, ohlanganisa iningizimu nenyakatho yoThukela. Lokhu yiyona ngqikithi yokushiwo ngukuGqabuka kweGoda, ngokuqembuka koMntwana uMpande okwakungokokuqala ngqa selokhu sasuka eNkabazwe ngaphansi kweNgonyama uMnguni kaNtu.

iKoloni yamaNgisi aseNatali ngemuva kweminyaka emibili, 1841-1842, uMbuso wamaNgisi wawanqoba amaBhunu ayeqole ingxenye yoMbuso kaZulu eningizimu yoThukela ngowe-1843 kubangwa indawo kaZulu nokubusa phezu kwakhe, indawo ayibhabhadisa ngokuthi iyiKoloni yamaNgisi aseNatali. Zonke izizwe zamaZulu ezazikade zibuswa yiziNgonyama oShaka noDingane eningizimu yoThukela, uSir Theophilus Shepstone, uSomtsewu, uNobhala WeziNdaba ZaBantu, wancoma ukuthi zakhiswe imizi yazo emeveni, ezintabeni nasemigubaneni. Zakhiswa ezindaweni ezazingakulungele neze ukulinywa nemfuyo. Wonke amaZulu enqaba ukuya emeveni adliwa yinhlamvu kwathiwa aduve ngokungemthetho. Odwaladwala bamapulazi avundile nalungele imfuyo ayengamamogeni ayizi-3000 ipulazi lomlungu emunye anikezwa amaNgisi namaBhunu nengxenye yomhlaba kaZulu eyaqolwa yabizwa ngokuthi yindawo kaHulumeni.

Zonke izizwe zaMakhosi eningizimu yoThukela noMzinyathi zaphoqwa ukukhanda ojantshi bezitimela, ukutshala amahlathi, nokukhanda imigwaqo ngaphansi kohlelo lwempoqo olwalwaziwa ngokuthi yiSibhalo. Bonke ababebhalisa abantu ohlelweni IweSibhalo banikezwa ilungelo lokubiza ilobolo lezinkomo ezili-15 nxa amadodakazi abo egana.

Impi yaseSandlwana, zingama-22 kuMasingana ngowe-1879
Impi yaseSandlwana eyalwa mhla zingama 22 kuMasingana ngonyaka we-1879 kudingeka sibe nalesi sithombe ezingqondweni zamaZulu nxa siyixoxa. Yalwa iziwombe ezine ezibalulekile: eSandlwana, eShiyane, kwaKhambula naseHlobane, eGingindlovu nasoNdini (mhla zizi-4 kuNtulikazi 1879). Yaqopha umlando, hhayi nje kuphela eNingizimu Afrika, kodwa emhlabeni jikelele kwazise iNgilandi ngenkathi ihlasela yasebenzisa amasotsha amazwe amaningi ayengamaKoloni ayo ukuzolekelela ukunqoba uMbuso kaZulu. Kwakunamasotsha avela eCanada, eNew Zealand, e-India. Kodwa ingxenye enkulu yamasotsha amaNgisi kwaba ngamabutho kaZulu ezizwe zamaZulu ezazakhe eKoloni yaseNatali eningizimu yoThukela aphoqwa kungekho ayengakwenza ukwenqaba ukuba alwe nabafowawo engasohlangathini lwamaNgisi ngenxa yokuthi ayefana nezigqila zawo amaNgisi aseningizimu yoThukela.

La maZulu ezizwe zaMakhosi aseningizimu yoThukela ayembandakanya amakholwa amaZulu aseDriefontein ngaseMnambithi, e-Edendale, eNdaleni, Rookdale nesizwe sonke sabaTlokwa, esasizinze kwaNobamba okungabeSuthu ababeholwa yiNkosi uHlubi abanikezwa elaseNquthu njengomklomelo ngemuva kwempi yaseSandlwana. Babengabazukulu bakaMantantise owazala uSigonyela bekade bezinze ngaseNtabazwe bazozinziswa kwaNobamba ukuze kuhlaselwe ngabo onke lawo makhosi nezizwe zawo ayesolwa ngamaNgisi ngokuthi awethembekile eMbusweni wawo. Ngakho-ke uMbuso wamaNgisi weKoloni yaseNatali wabalandela ukuzogadla ngabo ngokubahlomisa ngezibhamu ukuhlasela wonke amakhosi amaZulu, ayethathwa njengezephulamthetho, njengesizwe sakwaHadebe esasiholwa yiNkosi uLangalibalele ngowe-1873.

INgilandi yemukela nengxenye yamaBhunu uMengameli wawo uPaul Kruger owaqala ngokunikeza izeluleko zokuthi kusetshenziswe inqaba yezinqola njengoba wona enza mhla zili-16 kuZibandlela 1838 eNcome ehlasela impi kaZulu yeSilo uDingane. Ukusebenzisa inqaba yezinqola njengaseNcome iNgilandi yakuchitha ngephuzu lokuthi yona yayizosebenzisa izikhali ezaziyisimanje manje njengerapid firing needle guns ezazingefani neMartini Henrys eyayisetshenziswa ngamaBhunu eNcome. Iphuzu lesibili lokwenqaba iseluleko labangelwa ngubuningi bempi yawo amaNgisi eyayimbandakanya amabutho kaZulu eNyakatho yoThukela noMzinyathi kanye namaZulu ayezibiza ngamakholwa. Ngakho-ke empeleni nguZulu owayebhekene noZulu kanye naBatlokwa. Leli phuzu osomlando babelungu bayaligodla ukuze kudideke umlando wethu. Empeleni iNgilandi yayazi ngezinhloli zayo ukuthi amaZulu noma amanye awo ayezosebenzisa izibhamu kodwa iningi lamabutho awo lalithembele ezihlangwini, amawisa nemikhonto.

Ngakho-ke abaphathi bezempi yamaNgisi bathi bona bafuna indawo evulekile efanana nayo yaseSandlwana ukuze bazolalisa uyaca emabuthweni kaZulu nxa uZulu esedumelana yedwa amaNgisi ebukela. Kuyasicacela-ke ukuthi iNgilandi yayinamabutho angaphezulu kude kwaweNgonyama uCetshwayo eyayethembele kuphela kuZulu osenyakatho yoThukela noMzinyathi nowayengambandakanyi izizwe zaseManyiseni, kwaNyawo, kwaMtembe nakwaMngomezulu zonke ezingazange zilwe eSandlwana ngoba impi yabahlaseli yaqhamuka njengesinyenyela kwazise kwakukade kunoMkhosi woKweshwama waminyaka yonke eqala ngasekupheleni kukaZibandlela uze uphethwe ngasekupheleni kukaMasingana. Phela iNgilandi yase izocoboshisa okwase kukuphela koMbuso wabaMnyama eNingizimu Afrika owawuzimele gelekeqe ubuswa ngokuphelele ngabantu abamnyama kuyo yonke imikhakha yempilo ngonyaka we-1879. Ngakho-ke amabutho oMbuso kaZulu alwa njengabantu abase bephakathi kwembokodo nesisekelo ukuvikela izwe labo okwase kukuphela kwalo elalisasele.

Amalungiselelo okubhekana nabahlaseli
Ingakadumelani impi kaZulu nabahlaseli bamaNgisi, kwenziwa amalungiselo amaningi uZulu ayewenza nxa kuphuma impi. Njengoba kusukela endulo uMbuso kaZulu wawunezinhloli ezikhaliphe isimangaliso esingabala kuzo uNongila Mabaso, iNgonyama uCetshwayo yase yazi konke ngabahlaseli ngenkathi iNgilandi iphaka amabutho ayo ngemikhakha emithathu: ingxenye eyayizogudla ulwandle iyodlula eGingindlovu ize iyofika oNdini, ingxenye yamasotsha yayizoba phakathi nendawo iyodlula eSandlwana kanye neyesithathu eyayizoqhamuka ngaseHlobane wonke amasotsha agcine ehlangane koMkhulu IweNgonyama uCetshwayo oNdini.

Mayelana namalungiselelo oMbuso kaZulu, okokuqala kwakhishwa isimemezelo ngemuva kokuba iSilo uCetshwayo nesigungu saso sesinaso sonke isiqiniseko sokuthi abahlaseli babecionde oNdini bezohlasela izwe. Isimemezelo senziwa yizinceku ezaziholwa nguBhejane kaNomageje Khoza, abazukulu bakhe nampaya esizweni sakwaKhoza eNseleni. Isimemezelo sasithi: “iNgonyama ithi mayihlome!” Okwesibili, amabutho esefikile oNdini, iNgonyama yafisa ukwazi inani labantu ababenezibhamu. Isibonile ukuthi isibalo sasisincane, yancoma ukuthi kukhishwe izinkomo ukuze uJohn Dunn azothengela amabutho kaZulu izibhamu zokulwa. Yena wayezithenga kumaPhutukezi eMozambique. Lokho akwenzekanga ngoba uJohn Dunn noma iSilo uCetshwayo sasikade simnikeze amanxiwa eMangethe kwaMathaba, eMoyeni kwaNzuza nakwaQhwayinduku eMazimeleni kwathi nxa kuhlaselwa uZulu waqembukela kwabanye abelungu wabanika yonke imininingwane yoMbuso kaZulu ayeyazi.

Okwesithathu, kwaba ngamalungiselelo okuqinisa impi ngezintelezi okwakumbandakanya ukubamba inkunzi emnyama ibulawe ngezandla, ukuqiniswa ngentelezi kwamabutho, ukuphothula emfuleni, ukushunqiselwa kanye nokuchelwa ngazo. Okwesine ukuya eMakhosini nokuhlaba izinkomo zomzimu ezaziqondana namathongo eziNgonyama ezilele eMakhosini nokubongela amakhosi, ukuwazisa ngokuhlaselwa kwezwe lawo. Ebusuku amabutho ayehuba amahubo amadala azo zonke izingonyama zakwaZulu kusuke usinga.

Izinduna nezikhulu ezazibongela eMakhosini ngoMnyamana Buthelezi owayenguNdunankulu weSilo uCetshwayo, Mahlathini kaSojaba Nkwanyana, Ntshingwayo kaMahole Khoza owadidiyela yonke impi eSandlwana. Nguye uMahole owayeluse izinkomo noMntwana uSenzangakhona mhla ehlangana noNandi emadlangaleni kanti sekuzozalwa iLembe, uMbopha kaWolizibi Hlabisa, naziya izizukulwane zakhe kwaHlabisa, uMfusi kaManyala Mdletshe, ukhokho weNkosi uBonga Mdletshe kwaHlabisa, uHhemulana kaMbhangazeli Sibiya, owaphinde wahola eyakwaNdunu sekubusa uDinuzulu, uMvubu kaNgqengelele Buthelezi, uSekethwayo kaNhlaka Mdlalose, ukhokho kaDkt uFrank Mdlalose, uNtuzwa kaNhlaka Mdlalose, uSitshaluza kaMamba Ntshangase, (umfowabo kaMasiphula kaMamba owayenguNdunankulu kaMpande), uSihayo kaXhongo Ngobese, uMpandamana kaNdlela Ntuli, uPhalane kaMdinwa Mkhwanazi, uSigcwelegcwele kaMhlekehleke Ngema, uSomopho kaSikhala Mthembu nabanye.

Ukuxoxa impi
Okwesihlanu kwaba ukuxoxa impi lapho amabutho ayeklolodelana khona ngayezokwenza uma esebhekene nesitha isinyathela awabantwana. INgonyama uCetshwayo yaqala yathi makuxoxe uKhandampemvu neNgobamakhosi. Induna enkulu yeNgobamakhosi kwakunguSigcwelegcwele Mngadi okunguyena owaqala wagiya bamhasha ngezihasho zakhe bethi: “uJi! uJi!” efunga ukuthi iNgobamakhosi iyofika kuqala esitheni uKhandampemvu okunduna yalo kwakunguMkhosana kaMvundlana kaMenziwa Biyela lungakafiki. Naziya izizukulwane zakhe oBuka ngaphansi kweNkosi uChakide. Nezinye izinsizwa zoKhandampemvu zazifunga ngodadewabo ukuthi ziyofinyelela kuqala esitheni. Emaqhaweni nezingwazi ezindala kwakwenzeka zingakaphumeli obala iNgonyama ikhiphe isandla izixhawule ngokuzethemba ukuthi ziyoncamela ukusala enkundleni kunokudedela isitha sithathe izwe IakwaZulu. Nxa kuxoxwa impi ngisho umuntu owone kangakanani wayengabulawa ngoba lokho kwakungeke kuzwakale kahle emathongeni aMakhosi eMakhosini. Ukuxoxa impi kwakungumthandazo ngokwako.

Amahubo ayehutshwa ayenza ngisho igwala lifise ukuthi ngabe isitha sesifikile. Uma amabutho eseshunqiselwe achelwa nangezintelezi ayengavunyelwa ukuphindela emakhaya. Ngaso leso sikhathi abafazi emakhaya babephendulela izidwaba, baphebeze emoyeni ngemishanyelo ngenkolelo yokuthi lokho kwakuzokwenza amabutho abuye engavelelwanga mashwa empini, kusho ukuzila. Sekubikiwe emathongeni ezingonyama eMakhosini impi kaZulu yaphikelela eSandlwana iholwa nguNtshingwayo Khoza okwakunguyena owayezoyiphaka engumdidiyeli wayo omkhulu. Kwakuhutshwa amahubo amaningi empi kuphikelelwe eSandlwana mhla zingama-21 kuMasingana 1879. Elinye lalithi: Oqalayo: ‘Wosuka sihambe! s’hambe! Unosuka s’ hambe! Sihambe![uyaphindaphinda] Abavumayo: Hhe! Hhe! Kush’ uMngwempisi! Hhe! Hhe!Kush’ uMngwempisi!’ [kuyaphindaphindwa] Elinye ihubo layo iNgonyama uCetshwayo elaliqanjwe ngempi yaseNdondakusuka nalo lahutshwa kuyiwa eSandlwana, lalithi: Oqalayo: ‘Wo! Sinik’ abafo!’ [uyaphindaphinda] Abavumayo: ‘Im’khonto, Wena weNdlov’enamandla’ Oqalayo: ‘Ngonyama sinik’ impi! Im’khonto, wena weNdlov’ enamandla’.

Elinye ihubo lempi lalihutshwa ngesikhathi seSilo uDingane, nalo lahutshwa kuphikelelwe eSandlwana. Lalithi: Oqalayo: ‘Woza langa lashona!’ Abavumayo: ‘Lashona!’ Oqalayo: ‘Woza langa lashona!’ Abavumayo: ‘Lashona kuleziya ntaba!’ [kuyaphindwa phindwa]. Wonke amabutho ayeholwa yizinduna zawo namasekela azo. Izinhloli zazihamba phambili zingamakhilomitha alinganiselwa kwali-18. Zaziqeqeshiwe futhi zihlome ziphelele zazi ukuthi nxa kuqhamuka isitha kwakudingeke zikhwele zidilike ezinye ziyobikela impi enkulu emuva. Empini enkulu kwakukhona nezindibi ezazithwalele amaqhawe iziphuku zawo ukhotha nokunye. Zona zazima kude zibukele nxa impi isitholene phezulu kuthi nxa ezimthwalele esala enkundleni, zishiye yonke imithwalo yakhe lapho zazihleli khona. Nxa sekuphindelwa emakhaya kwakubonakala ngokufika kwazo zingasaphethe zimpahla ukuthi abezibathwalele basale empini, bese kwenziwa amalungiselelo okulandwa kwabo. Ngakho-ke amatshe amaningi abekwe phezu kwamathambo eSandlwana ngawabaTlokwa namaZulu ayephoqiwe ukuchema neNgilandi.

Ngakusasa mhla zingama-22 kuMasingana 1879, kwathi nxa amabutho esewabona amatende amasotsha amaNgisi aphikelela khona ekhuza: “uSuthu! uSuthu!” okuyisaga esasiqanjwe eNdondakusuka ngababesekela uMntwana uCetshwayo kodwa esase siyisaga soMbuso kaZulu eseyingonyama. Amasotsha amaNgisi ayevive ngemuva kwabaTlokwa namabutho amaZulu aseningizimu yoThukela noMzinyathi njengoba abelungu babekade benze njalo eMaqonqo naseNdondakusuka ukuze azobhekana noZulu kuqala abantu abamnyama baqedane bodwa. Nempela kwathi nxa impi yeNgonyama uCetshwayo ibona amambuka yawagwaza ngamaklwa agcwala iziganga izindimbane zawo zasala enkundleni kumbandakanya uGabangaye Mchunu namambuka amaningi ayesuka eKoloni yaseNatali amaNgisi ayengazange azihluphe ngisho ukubhala uhla lwamabutho awo emqulwini wamasotsha ayelwa lapho. Kwakuthi nxa insizwa igwaza ibulala isitha ikhumule izingubo zayo izibeke phezu kwesidumbu sesitha yona igqoke ezesitha. Lokhu kwenzeka nasezitheni zamasotsha abelungu ngoba kwabe kuyinkolelo kaZulu evimba ukuthi ogwaziwe angayilandeli.

Amanye amambuka aklonyeliswa nguMbuso wamaNgisi uNjengabantu Ngubane kaSobhuza Ngubane wasemaBomvini wasiza amasotsha amaNgisi amaningi wagcina enikezwe imendlela wanikezwa isikhundla sokuba nguSayitsheni eGreytown, amakholwa maningi oStephen Mini [Edendale] u-Elijah Khambule, uSimeon Khambule nawo aklonyeliswa ngezimendlela ngokudubula abantu bakubo.

Ngemuva kwesikhathi eside isiphelile impi yaseSandlwana kwaba nombango wesikhundla sobukhosi emaChunwini okwakudingeke sithathwe nguZimema kodwa uMbuso weKoloni yamaNgisi wathi makube yindlalifa kaGabanganye ukuze akhunjulwe ngokulwela kwakhe amaNgisi eSandlwana, uZimema wajukujelwa eMzimkhulu nedlanzana labalandeli.

Ngakho-ke uMbuso wamaNgisi awuzange uzihluphe ngisho ukugcina kahle uhla lwabamnyama ababesuka eKoloni yaseNatali ukuze kwaziwe kamhlophe ukuthi bangaki abasala enkundleni nanokuthi nje babengobani ngoba wawungagqizeqakala ngokuthi bayasinda noma bayafa na. Kwathatha isikhathi eside kakhulu nokuthi amathambo amambuka ayesakazeke sonke isiganga saseSandlwana ahlonishwe ngokubeka amatshe phezu kwawo, kwawona agcina ependwe nje ngopende omhlophe ngaphandle kokucacisela izizukulwane esezithatha ngokuthi ngamabutho eNgonyama uCetshwayo.

lngxenye yabaTlokwa eyasala kwababesele enkundleni eSandlwana baklonyeliswa ngendawo kaSihayo Ngobese noSekethwayo Mdlalose eNquthu ababesaphila kwazise babulawa oNdini ngesu lokubhuqa amaqhawe ayesale eSandlwana neSilo uCetshwayo esasisandukubuya ekudingisweni eKapa, mhla zingama-21 kuNtulikazi 1883. Inhloso yokubabeka lapho abaTlokwa kwakungukuqapha ukuthi oSihayo noSekethwayo bangafaki umoya wokuketula amaNgisi enyakatho yoThukela noMzinyathi.

Ngasohlangothini lwempi yeNgonyama uCetshwayo izinkubela eziningi izihlobo zazo zazilanda eSandlwana okungabalwa phakathi kwazo uMagudulwana Mthembu waseMahlabathini woKhandampemvu. Wagwaza abelungu abathathu ekuKhandampemvu isotsha lesithathu walijuqa naye esedubulekile emlenzeni, isidumbu sesotsha sawela phezu kwakhe. lzihlobo sezifika zizobheka izinkubela nezidumbu zezihlobo zazo watholakala esaphila uMagudulwana zamthwala wasiwa ekhaya wanikezwa imihlatshelo waphila.

Kubhekwana nabahlaseli bamasotsha amaNgisi ematendeni esegudluziwe abulawa amambuka, amabutho kaZulu aphikelela ematendeni lapho kwafinyelela khona kuqala uMbonambi ondukuzibomv’igazi, induna yawo enkulu okwakunguNtuzwa Mdlalose noMankulumana kaSomaphunga Ndwandwe owagcina enguNdunankulu weNgonyama uDinuzulu wayeyingxenye yeMbonambi. Amasotsha amaNgisi avulela ngemvula yezinhlamvu eziqondise kulo ibutho leMbonambi kodwa kwanhlanga zimuka nomoya, kuthiwa ‘uyadela wen’usulapho’ bebodwa abasho izibongo zeNgonyama uCetshwayo lagcina lifike qatha ematendeni.

Ngemuva kwalokho kwaphakwa uKhandampemvu olwaluholwa yinduna yalo uMkhosana Biyela, owagijima njengohlanya ephakamise isihlangu sakhe eqonde kubahlaseli. Amasotsha amaNgisi amthela phansi ngenhlamvu wasala enkundleni. Omunye owangena kuKhandampemvu ngoba esejahe ukufika qatha esitheni samaNgisi nguQethuka Magwaza owayeyinduna enkulu yohlangothi loThulwana kwazise isibaya esikhulu soThulwana sasingaphansi kukaMnyamana. Ngakho-ke wakhuzwa uQethuka kaManqondo ngoba kwakungakabi yithuba loThulwana kodwa wangena kuKhandampemvu ukuze abe lapho kwakushisa khona kushunqa intuthu kusetshenziswa izibhamu zohlobo oluphambili. Wagwaza amasotsha amaNgsi amaningi wabuya engenamyocu. Indodakazi yakhe okaQethuka yagcina ibe yiNkosikazi yeSilo uCetshwayo yazala uMntwana uManzolwandle ngemuva kancane kokudliswa ushevu kweSILO uCetshwayo ngamaNgisi ziyisi-8 kuNhlolanja 1884.

Ngemuva koKhandampemvu kwamemeza uSikhizane kaNomageje Buthelezi eqondise kuNgobamakhosi ethi: “Nilalelani phansi? Nathini kuKhandampemvu mhla kuxoxwa impi? Nalo uKhandampemvu luphikelele ematendeni?” iNgobamakhosi yase isibonile ukuthi nxa isibhamu silungiselelwa ukudubula kudingeka ilale phansi iphinde ivuke iphikelele phambili nxa nje siqeda ukudubula kwazise kwabe kunotshani obude eSandlwana.

Ngakho-ke amasotsha amaNgisi ematendeni agcina egwazwe abulawa ucaca kwathathwa nezibhamu zawo. Ngenxa yokuthi lwalukhona uhla Iwamasotsha abelungu, ngemuva nje kwempi yaseSandlwana iNgilandi yakhela amasotsha ayo ayesale enkundleni izakhiwo eziningi zezikhumbuzo zawo okubalwa nawo wonke ayeqhamuka eKoloni yaseNatali kwazise uZulu…

washaya ikhuhle emasotsheni amaNgisi eSandlwana. Okubi kakhulu ngukuthi amaZulu noma esesemandleni ombusazwe awuqikeleli ukuthi amaqhawe awo abekwe ngendlela ehloniphekile, njengokwakha isikhumbuzo esikhulu khona laphaya eSandlwana esithe qekelele sibhalwa phezulu uMkhosana Biyela nawo wonke amaqhawe asala enkundleni kuvikelwa izwe. AmaZulu angabazukulu bamaqhawe aseSandlwana asuke acabange ukuthi isitha singawasiza ukuhlonipha amaqhawe aso okuyinto engakaze yenzeke emhlabeni jikelele. Iningi lalawo masotsha amaNgisi azama ukubaleka aphikelele eShiyane avinjwa agwazwa ngamabutho oVe noNokhenke. USikhobobo Sibiya wayeyingxenye kaNokhenke. Idlanzana elafinyelela eShiyane lasizwa ngukwakha inqaba efana nezinqola zamaBhunu eziseNcome. Leyo nqaba ayakha ngamasaka kwathi nxa uZulu ezama ukucaca adubula amasotsha amaNgisi ecashe ngemuva kwayo. Yanqandwa kanjalo ekaZulu eShiyane.

Ukuhlasela kwamaNgisi kwaKhambula naseHlobane kwaqondana nabaQulusi. Yonke indawo esuka eMahlabathini ize iyofinyelela eSimdlangentsha yayikade inikezwe uNgqengelele yiNgonyama uShaka. Ngakho-ke indlalifa yakhe uMnyamana wayenemizi eNgoje naseMahlabathini. Kwakuyinjwayelo kwaZulu ukuthi impi nxa ilwela endaweni yesikhulu seNgonyama kube yiso esiphaka impi lapho kwazise amabutho amaningi ayengaphansi koholo lwaso. Ngakho-ke impi kwaKhambula, ngaseNqabeni kaHawana, yaphakwa nguMnyamana kaNgqengelele. Ngaleso sikhathi amasotsha amaNgisi ayesevutha uphondo ngemuva kokwehlulwa kwawo eSandlwana. Ayesebulala abalimele eshisa imizi yabantu abafazi basale dengwane. Impi kaZulu yalwa ngokuzinikela okukhulu kwaKhambula naseHlobane kodwa izibhamu zadla umhlanganiso emahawini nasemikhontweni. Ngenyanga kaNdasa 1879, uMntwana uHhamu kaMpande wembukela emaNgisini nengxenye kaZulu eyayingabalandeli bakhe. Lokhu kwacaca ukuthi amaNgisi ayenomshoshaphansi wokunxenxela amaqhawe kaZulu ukuba azimbandakanye nawo.

Impi eyayiqhamuka eGingindlovu neyagcina ilwele eMfuleni iNyezane yatholana phezulu nekaZulu eyayiholwa nguPhalane Mkhwanazi, uSomopho kaSikhala Mthembu, uMavumengwana Ntuli noMajiya Nzuza. Yadumelana ngamawala eNyezane kwafa amasotsha amaNgisi amaningi. Kulapho futhi abaphathi bamasotsha amaNgisi bakhipha isinqumo sokuthi kudutshulwe kubulawe nabalimele okuyinto isivumelwano saseGeneva esiphambene nayo. Yehlulwa kanjalo ekaZulu.

Amasotsha amaNgisi agcina ekwazile ukuphikelela oNdini ukuze abambe iNgonyama uCetshwayo. Amabutho amaningi kaZulu azama ukuvimba amasotsha amaNgisi kodwa mhla zizi-4 kuNtulikazi 1879 agcine efinyelele oNdini afike alushisa ngomlilo. Ingonyama yayingasekho isibhaciswe eNgome emzini kaShoyisa Mbuyisa esizweni sakwaButhelezi. Nokho yagcina itholakele mhla zingama-31 kuNcwaba 1879 yaqhutshwa ngamabutho amaNgisi igqokiswe indwangu yetafula. Kwahanjwa kusukwa oNdini indlela yedlula lapho sekuyiNyuvesi yasoNgoye yedlula ngenhla kwedolobha laseSikhawini kwathi lapho okuthiwa kuseSikhawini Beach khona yathathwa ngumkhumbi wezempi yayiswa ekudingisweni e-Oude Moulen eKapa.

Isiphetho
Impi yaseSandlwana ibhalwe ngemfundisoze nangokubuka umlando ngeso laseNtshonalanga ngosomlando babelungu, yaphendukezelwa. Labo somlando bayakufihla ukuthi amabutho kaZulu avela eNatali nabaTlokwa yiwona ayengaphezulu kude kwaweSilo uCetshwayo enyakatho yoThukela noMzinyathi. Bayakufihla futhi ukuthi ukuba amabutho abaTlokwa namaZulu aseNatali ayenqobile, umbuso wamaNgisi wawungeke uzihluphe ngisho nangokudubula njengoba naseMaqonqo ngowe-1840 amabutho amaBhunu ayeholwa ngu-Andries Pretorius engazange adubule kodwa abukela amaZulu ebulalana wodwa wona eme le kude. NaseNdondakusuka ngowe-1856 amabutho amaNgisi ayeholwa nguJohn Dunn aze azimbandakanya nempi ngoba sekusobala ukuthi ekaMntwana uCetshwayo idla umhlanganiso. Ngakho-ke umlando wamaZulu kudingeka ubhalwe yiwo amaZulu ewubhalela amaZulu ngolimi lwesiZulu njengoba izizwe zenza emhlabeni jikelele.

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